AULA PARTICULAR DE INGLÊS no local e horário de sua preferência em São José dos Campos.
Aulas de Holandês - Curso de Holandês com aulas particulares em São José dos Campos, São Paulo.

PORT AND SHIPPING TERMINOLOGY - MARITIME GLOSSARY

A

AFT
In, near, or toward the stern of the vessel.

ALONGSIDE
A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered "alongside" are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship's tackle so that they can be loaded.

ASTERN
A backward direction in the line of a vessel's fore and aft line; behind. If a vessel moves backwards it is said to move astern; opposite to ahead.

B

BACKFREIGHT
The owners of a ship are entitled to payment as freight for merchandise returned through the fault of either the consignees or the consignors. Such payment, which is over and above the normal freight, is called backfreight.

BACKHAUL
To haul a shipment back over part of a route that it has already traveled; return movement of cargo, usually opposite from the direction of its primary cargo destination.

BAGGED CARGO
Various kinds of commodities usually packed in sacks or in bags, such as sugar, cement, milk powder, onion, grain, flour, etc.

BALLAST
Heavy substances loaded by a vessel to improve stability, trimming, sea-keeping and to increase the immersion at the propeller. Sea water ballast is commonly loaded in most vessels in ballast tanks, positioned in compartments right at the bottom and in some cases on the sides, called wing tanks. On a tanker, ballast is seawater that is taken into the cargo tanks to submerge the vessel to a proper trim.

BALLAST KEEL
A heavy keel fitted to sailing vessels to lower the center of gravity and improve stability.

BALLAST MOVEMENT
A voyage or voyage leg made without any paying cargo in a vessel's tanks. To maintain proper stability, trim, or draft, sea water is usually carried during such movements.

BALLAST TANK
Compartments at the bottom of a ship or on the sides which are filled with liquids for stability and to make the ship seaworthy. Any shipboard tank or compartment on a tanker normally used for carrying salt-water ballast. When these compartments or tanks are not connected with the cargo system they are called segregated ballast tanks or systems.

BARE BOAT CHARTER
A charter in which the bare ship is chartered without crew; the charterer, for a stipulated sum taking over the vessel for a stated period of time, with a minimum of restrictions; the charterer appoints the master and the crew and pays all running expenses. See Demise Charter.

BARGE
Flat-bottomed boat designed to carry cargo on inland waterways, usually without engines or crew accommodations. Barges can be lashed together and either pushed or pulled by tugs, carrying cargo of 60,000 tons or more. Small barges for carrying cargo between ship and shore are known as lighters.

BARGE ABOARD CATAMARAN
A way of loading cargo into large barges and then in turn loading the barges into a ship.

BARGE CARRIERS
Ships designed to carry either barges or containers exclusively, or some variable number of barges and containers simultaneously. Currently this class includes two types of vessels, the LASH and the SEABEE.

BEAM
The width of a ship.Also called breadth.

BELT LINE
A switching railroad operating within a port or other commercial area.

BERTH
A place in which a vessel is moored or secured; place alongside a quay where a ship loads or discharges cargo.

BERTH TERM
Shipped under a rate that does not include the cost of loading or unloading.

BERTHAGE
Charges for the use of a berth.

BUILD-OWN-OPERATE (BOO)
A form of project wherein a private party or consortium agrees to finance, construct, operate, and maintain a facility previously owned and/or operated by a public authority. The concessionaire retains ownership of the facility. The concessionaire bears the commercial risk of operating the facility.

BILL OF LADING
A document that establishes the terms of contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and a receipt for goods.

BLACK CARGO
Cargo banned by general cargo workers for some reason. This ban could be because the cargo is dangerous or hazardous to health.

BLACK GANG
A slang expression referring to the personnel in the engine department aboard ship.

BLS
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor.

BOATSWAIN (BOSUN)
The highest unlicensed rating in the deck department who has immediate charge of all deck hands and who in turn comes under the direct orders of the master or chief mate or mate.

BOILERS
Steam generating units used aboard ship to provide steam for propulsion (and) for heating and other auxiliary purposes.

BOW
The front of a vessel.

BOW THRUSTERS
A propeller at the lower sea-covered part of the bow of the ship which turns at right angles to the fore-and-aft line and thus provides transverse thrust as a maneuvering aid.

BOGIE
A set of wheels built specifically as rear wheels under a sea container.

BULKHEAD
A structure to resist water; a partition separating one part of a ship from another part.

BOND PORT
Port of a vessel’s initial customs entry to any country; also known as first port of call.

BONDED WAREHOUSE
A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.

BULK
Cargo shipped in loose condition and of a homogeneous nature. Cargoes that are shipped unpackaged either dry, such as grain and ore, or liquid, such as petroleum products. Bulk service generally is not provided on a regularly scheduled basis, but rather as needed, on specialized ships, transporting a specific commodity.

BULK CARRIER
Ship specifically designed to transport vast amounts of cargoes such as sugar, grain, wine, ore, chemicals, liquefied natural gas; coal and oil. See also LNG Carrier, Tanker, OBO Ship.

BULKHEAD
A name given to any vertical partition which separates different compartments or spaces from one another.

BUNKERS
Fuel consumed by the engines of a ship; compartments or tanks in a ship for fuel storage.

BUOY - A floating object employed as an aid to mariners to mark the navigable limits of channels, their fairways, sunken dangers, isolated rocks, telegraph cables, and the like; floating devices fixed in place at sea, lake or river as reference points for navigation or for other purposes.

BUNKERS
Fuel used aboard ships.

BREAK BULK
Loose, non-containerized cargo stowed directly into a ship’s hold; to unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a container.

BROKER
A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load.

BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER (BOT)
A form of concession wherein a private party or consortium agrees to finance, construct, operate, and maintain a facility for a specified period and then transfer the facility to a government or other public authority. The concessionaire bears the commercial risk of operating the facility.

C

CARFLOAT
A barge equipped with tracks on which railroad cars are moved by water.

CARGO TONNAGE
Ocean freight is frequently billed on the basis of weight or measurement tons. Weight tons can be expressed in terms of short tons of 2000 pounds, long tons of 2240 pounds, or metric tons of 1000 kilograms (2204.62 pounds). Measurement tons are usually expresses as cargo measurement of 40 cubic feet (1.12 cubic meters) or cubic meters (35.3 cubic feet).

CARRIER
Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by sea, inland waterway, rail, road, air, or by a combination of such modes.

CABOTAGE
Shipments between ports of a single nation, frequently reserved to national flag vessels of that nation.

CONCESSION
An arrangement whereby a private party (concessionaire) leases assets from a public authority for an extended period and has responsibility for financing specified new fixed investments during the period and for providing specified services associated with the assets; in return, the concessionaire receives specified revenues from the operation of the assets; the assets revert to the public sector at expiration of the contract.

CARTAGE
Intra-port or local hauling of cargo by drays or trucks; also referred to as drayage.

CHASSIS
A frame with wheels and container locking devises to secure the container for movement.

CONSERVANCY
In some countries, this fee is levied to retain upkeep of the approaches to waterways and canals.

CLASSIFICATION YARD
A railroad yard with many tracks used for assembling freight trains.

CONSOLIDATION
Cargo containing shipments of two or more shoppers of suppliers. Containerload shipments may be consolidated for one or more consignees.

CLEANING IN TRANSIT
The stopping of articles (such as farm products) for cleaning at a point between the point of origin and destination.

CONTAINER
A truck trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading onto a vessel, a rail car, or stacked in a container depot. Containers may be ventilated, insulated, refrigerated, flat rack, vehicle rack, open top, bulk liquid, dry bulk, or other special configurations. Typical containers may be 20 feet, 40 feet, 45 feet, 48 feet, or 53 feet in length, 8 feet or 8.5 feet in width, and 8.5 feet or 9.5 feet in height.

CLEARANCE
The size beyond which vessels, cars, or loads cannot pass through, under, or over bridges, tunnels, highways, etc.

CLEAT
A device secured on the floor of a container to provide additional support or strength to a cargo-restraining device, or a device attached to a wharf to secure mooring lines.

CONTAINER FREIGHT STATION (CFS)
A shipping dock where cargo is loaded ("stuffed") into or unloaded ("stripped") from containers. Container reloading to/from sea containers to rail and motor carrier equipment is an activity typically performed in a container freight station.

COMMON CARRIER
A transportation company that provides service to the general public at published rates.

CONTAINER POOL
An agreement between parties that allows the efficient use and supply of containers; a common supply of containers available to the shipper as required.

CUSTOMHOUSE
A government office where duties are paid, documents filed, etc., on foreign shipments.

CUSTOMS BROKER
A person or firm, licensed by the customs authority of their country when required, engaged in entering and clearing goods through customs for a client (importer).

CONTAINERSHIP
Ship equipped with cells into which containers can be stacked; containerships may be full or partial, depending on whether all or only some of its compartments are fitted with container cells.

CUT-OFF TIME (CLOSING TIME)
The latest time a container may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled vessel, train, or truck.

CONTAINER TERMINAL
An area designated for the stowage of cargo in containers, usually accessible by truck, railroad, and marine transportation, where containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained, and housed.

CONTAINER YARD
A materials handling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/or empty containers.

CONTRABAND
Cargo that is prohibited.

CONTRACT CARRIER DOCK
Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or cargo for compensation. For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline.

CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE
Sophisticated, computer controlled systems that manage the mixture of gases within a container throughout an intermodal journey, thereby reducing decay.

D

DAILY RUNNING COST
Cost per day of operating a ship.

DECONSOLIDATION POINT
Place where loose or other non-containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery.

DEMURRAGE
The delay of a vessel or detention of a shipment beyond the stipulated time allowed for loading or unloading; the resulting payment to the owner for such delay or detention.

DUNNAGE
Material used in stowing cargo either for separation or the prevention of damage

DRAFT
The depth of a loaded vessel in the water, taken from the level of the waterline, to the lowest point of the hull of the vessel; depth of water, or distance between the bottom of the ship and the water line. Also referred to as draught.

DREDGING
Removal of sediment to deepen access channels, provide turning basins for ships, and adequate water depth along waterside facilities.

DRAYAGE
Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck.

DRY-BULK CONTAINER
A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform.

DRY CARGO
Merchandise other than liquid carried in bulk.

DRY CARGO SHIP
Vessel which carriers all merchandise, excluding liquid in bulk.

DRY DOCK
An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with water tight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.

DRY BULK
Low density cargo, such as agri-food products, fertilizers and ores, that are transported in bulk carriers.

DUAL PURPOSE SHIP
Specially constructed ship able to carry different types of cargoes such as ore and/or oil.

DUMPING
Attempting to import merchandise into a country at a price less than the fair market value, usually through subsidy by exporting country.

DUNNAGE
A term applied to loose wood or other material used in a ship's hold for the protection of cargo.

E

ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival

ETD
Estimated Time of Departure

ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)
Transmission of transactional data between computer systems.

EDIFACT
Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Trade. International data interchange standards sponsored by the United Nations.

EMINENT DOMAIN
The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation.

Empty Container Handler
Empty container handler Name given to any truck dedicated to handling empty containers in a port or terminal. Commonly it is a frontlift truck which has a capacity much lower than a truck designed to lift laden containers. It is generally capable of stacking containers three or four high and some models can stack six high.

F

FOREIGN TRADE ZONE
A free port in a country divorced from customs authority but under government control. Merchandise, except contraband, may be stored in the zone without being subject to import duty regulations.

FORTY-FOOT EQUIVALENT UNITS (FEUS)
Unit of measurement equivalent to one fortyfoot container. Two twenty-foot containers (TEUs) equal one FEU. Container vessel capacity and port throughput capacity are frequently referred to in FEUs or TEUs.

FORCE MAJEURE
The title of a common clause in contracts, exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.

FREIGHT, DEMURRAGE AND DEFENSE
Class of insurance provided by a protection and indemnity club that covers legal costs incurred by a ship owner in connection with claims arising from the operation of his ship.

FREIGHT PAYABLE AT DESTINATION
Method of paying the freight often used for shipment of bulk cargo whose weight is established on discharge from the ship.

FEEDER SERVICE
Transport service whereby loaded or empty containers in a regional area are transferred to a "mother ship" for a long-haul ocean voyage.

FIXED COSTS
Costs that do not vary with the level of activity. Some fixed costs continue even if no cargo is carried; for example, terminal leases, rent, and property taxes.

FREIGHT FORWARDER
Person or company who arranges for the carriage of goods and associated formalities on behalf of a shipper. The duties of a forwarder include booking space on a ship, providing all the necessary documentation and arranging Customs clearance.

FREE TRADE ZONE
A zone, often within a port (but not always so located), designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., with the zone and re-exported without duties being applied. Also referred to as free port.

G

GANTRY CRANE
A crane or hoisting machine moored on a frame or structure spanning an intervening space, and designed to hoist containers into our out of a ship.

GATEWAY
A point at which freight moving from one territory to another is interchanged between transportation lines.

GROUNDING
Deliberate contact by a ship with the bottom while the ship is moored or anchored as a result of the water level dropping or when approaching the coast as a result of a navigational error.

GROUPAGE
The grouping together of several compatible consignments into a full container load. Also referred to as consolidation.

H

HARBOR DUES
Various local charges against all seagoing vessels entering a harbor, to cover maintenance of channel depths, buoys, lights, etc. All harbors do not necessarily have this charge.

HARBOR MASTER
A person usually having the experience of a certificated master mariner and having a good knowledge of the characteristics of the port and its whole area. He administers the entire shipping movements that take place in and within reach of the port he is responsible for.

HARD AGROUND
A vessel which has gone aground and is incapable of refloating under her own power

HEAVY LIFT CHARGE
A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship’s tackle.

HARBOUR DUES
Port charges to a vessel for each harbour entry, usually on a per gross registered ton basis for commercial vessels.

HOLD
A ship’s interior storage compartment.

I

IN BOND
Cargo moving under customs control where duty has not yet been paid.

INDUCEMENT
Placing a port on a vessel’s itinerary because the volume of cargo offered by that port justifies the cost of routing the vessel.

INLAND CARRIER
A transportation company that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.

INTERMODAL
Movement of cargo containers interchangeably between transport modes where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems.

J

JACOB'S LADDER
A rope ladder suspended from the side of a vessel and used for boarding.

JETTY
Structure projecting out to sea, designed to protect a port from the force of the waves but also used to berth ships.

JUMBOISING
Conversion of a ship to increase cargo-carrying capacity by dividing and adding a new section.

K

KEEL
A flat steel plate running along the center line of a vessel.

KEELAGE
Dues paid by a ship making use of certain British ports.

KNOT
Measure of speed of a ship, equal to one nautical mile (1,852 meters) per hour.

L

LADEN
Loaded aboard a vessel.

LAID-UP TONNAGE
Ships not in active service; a ship which is out of commission for fitting out, awaiting better markets, needing work for classification, etc.

LAKER
Type of ship which trades only in the Great Lakes of North America. They usually carry grain and ore cargoes.

LANDBRIDGE
A system of through rates and service offered by a carrier for cargo shipments from a foreign port to a U.S. port, across U.S. land to another U.S. port and finally by sea to a foreign port destination.

LASH
Abbreviation for "Lighter Aboard Ship." A specially constructed vessel equipped with an overhead crane for lifting specially designed barges and stowing them into cellular slots on the vessel.

LASH
Lighter aboard ship: A barge carrier designed to act as a shuttle between ports, taking on and discharging barges.

LASH SHIPS
LASH stand for Lighter Aboard Ship. It is a specialized container ship carrying very large floating containers, or "lighters." The ship carries its own massive crane, which loads and discharges the containers over the stern. The lighters each have a capacity of 400 tons and are stowed in the holds and on deck. While the ship is at sea with one set of lighters, further sets can be made ready. Loading and discharge are rapid at about 15 minutes per lighter, no port or dock facilities are needed, and the lighters can be grouped for pushing by towboats along inland waterways.

LINE HAUL
The movement of freight over the tracks of a transportation line from one city to another.

LIMITED RECOURSE FINANCING
Project financing in which sponsors or governments agree to provide contingent financial support to give lenders extra comfort; typically provided during the construction and start-up period of a project, which is generally the riskiest time in the life of an infrastructure project.

LINER
A vessel sailing between specified ports on a regular basis.

LADEN DRAUGHT
Depth of water to which a ship is immersed when fully loaded.

LLOYDS’ REGISTRY
An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels involved.

LANDLORD PORT
An institutional structure whereby the port authority or other relevant public agency retains ownership of the land, as well as responsibility for maintaining approach channels and navigation aids; under this model, the port does not engage in any operational activities.

LONGSHOREMAN
Individual employed locally in a port to load and unload ships.

LEASE-DEVELOP-OPERATE (LDO)
A form of concession wherein, under a longterm lease, a private company upgrades and expands an existing facility and manages its cash flows. The public authority holds title to the facility throughout the concession period and receives lease payments on the assets.

LO-LO (LIFT ON/LIFT OFF)
A type of vessel that allows cargo to be loaded or unloaded by either ship or shore cranes.

LIGHTER
An open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used primarily to harbors and inland waterways to carry cargo to/from alongside a vessel.

M

MAIN DECK
The main continuous deck of a ship running from fore to aft; the principle deck; the deck from which the freeboard is determined.

MALPRACTICE
A carrier giving a customer illegal preference to attract cargo. This can take the form of a money refund (rebate); using lower figures than actual for the assessment of freight charges (undercubing); misdeclaration of the commodity shipped to allow the assessment of a lower tariff rate; waiving published tariff charges for demurrage, CFS handling or equalization; providing specialized equipment to a shipper to the detriment of other shippers, etc.

MANIFEST
A document containing a full list of the ship's cargo, extracted from the bills of lading.

MEZZANINE FINANCING
A mix of financing instruments, including equity, subordinated debt, completion guarantees, and bridge financing, the balance of which changes as the risk profile of a project changes; i.e., as a project moves beyond construction into operation.

MARITIME
Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction.

MARITIME ADMINISTRATION (MarAd )
Oversees subsidy programs to the United States Merchant Marine. Assigns routes to subsidized liners.

MARPOL 73/78
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978.

MASTHEAD LIGHT
A white light positioned over the fore and aft centerline of the vessel.

MIXED CARGO
Two or more products carried on board one ship.

MOBILE CRANE
General purpose crane capable of being moved from one part of a port to another.

MOOR
To attach a ship to the shore by ropes.

N

NATIONAL CARGO BUREAU
A private organization having representatives throughout the main harbors in the U.S. It is empowered to inspect cargoes of a hazardous nature and issue certificates which are automatically approved by the Coast Guard.

NATIONAL FLAG
The flag carried by a ship to show her nationality.

NAUTICAL MILE
Distance of one minute of longitude at the equator, approximately 6,076.115 feet. The metric equivalent is 1852 meters.

NAVSAC
Navigation Safety Advisory Council, an industry advisory body to the U.S. Coast Guard.

NDRF
National Defense Reserve Fleet.

NEOBULK
Shipments consisting entirely of units of a single commodity, such as cars, lumber, or scrap metal.

NEO-BULK CARGO
Uniformly packaged goods, such as wood pulp bales, which store as solidly as bulk, but that are handled as general cargo.

NON-RECOURSE FINANCING
Project financing for which no loan guarantees or financial support is provided by the sponsors or governments to lenders for the project.

O

OBO SHIP
A multipurpose ship that can carry ore, heavy dry bulk goods and oil. Although more expensive to build, they ultimately are more economical because they can make return journeys with cargo rather than empty as single-purpose ships often must.

OCEAN WAYBILL
A document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper which serves as a receipt for the goods and evidence of the contract carriage.

OCMI
Officer in Charge of Marine Inspection.

ODS
Operating-Differential Subsidy: Established by the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, it was a direct subsidy paid to U.S.-flag operators to offset the high operating cost of U.S.-flag ships when compared to foreign-flag counterparts. Contracts between U.S.-flag vessel operators and the Maritime Administration have expired. The ODS program has been replaced by the Maritime Security Program.

OECD
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The Maritime Transport Committee is part of this organization.

OFF-HIRE CLAUSE
In a time charter, the owner is entitled to a limited time for his vessel to be off hire until such time as the vessel may be repaired or dry-docked.

OFF-LOAD
Discharge of cargo from a ship.

OILER
An unlicensed member of the engine room staff who oils and greases bearings and moving parts of the main engine and auxiliaries. Most of this work is now done automatically and the oiler merely insures it operates correctly.

OIL RECORD BOOK
A book or log kept by the master of an oil tanker wherein every discharge or escape of oil is recorded.

OIL TANKER
A ship designed for the carriage of oil in bulk, her cargo space consisting of several or many tanks. Tankers load their cargo by gravity from the shore or by shore pumps and discharge using their own pumps.

OMB
Office of Management and Budget.

OPA
Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

OPEN RATES
Pricing systems that are flexible and not subject to conference approval. Usually applied to products in which tramps are substituted for liners.

OPEN REGISTRY
A term used in place of "flag of convenience" or "flag of necessity" to denote registry in a country which offers favorable tax, regulatory, and other incentives to ship owners from other nations.

OPEN TOP CONTAINER
A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.

ORDINARY SEAMAN
A deck crewmember who is subordinate to the Able Bodied Seaman.

ORE CARRIER
A large ship designed to be used for the carnage of ore. Because of the high density of ore, ore carriers have a relatively high center of gravity to prevent them being still when at sea, that is, rolling heavily with possible stress to the hull.

ORE-BULK-OIL CARRIER
A large multi-purpose ship designed to carry cargoes wither of ore or other bulk commodities or oil so as to reduce the time the ship would be in ballast if restricted to one type of commodity. This type of ship is sometimes called bulk-oil carrier.

ORE-OIL CARRIER
A ship designed to carry either ore or oil in bulk.

OVERTONNAGING
A situation where there are too many ships generally or in a particular trade for the level of available cargoes.

ON-CARRIER
Person or company who contracts to transport cargo from the port or place of discharge of a sea-going or ocean-going ship to another destination by a different means of transport, such as truck, train or barge.

OPTIONAL CARGO
Cargo that is destined for one of the ship’s discharge ports, the exact one not being know when the goods are loaded.

OVERCARRIAGE
The carriage of cargo beyond the port for which it was intended.

P

PALLET
A flat tray, generally made of wood but occasionally steel or other materials, on which goods can be stacked. There are two principal sizes: the ISO pallet, which measures 1 x 1.2 meters and the europallet at 0.8 x 1.2 meters.

PANAMAX
Maximum-size bulk carriers whose dimensions enable the ship to transit the Panama Canal when lock width is the limiting factor.

PARTIAL CONTAINERSHIPS
Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo.

PASSENGER SHIP
A passenger ship that its authorized to carry over twelve passengers.

PER CONTAINER RATE
Rates and/or changes on shipments transported in containers or trailers and rated on the basis of the category of the container or trailer.

PERSONAL FLOATATION DEVICE
Approved floats meant as life preservers and carried on board American ships.

PERMANENT DUNNAGE
Strips of timber fixed to the frames of a ship to keep cargo away from the sides of the ship in order to avoid damage and condensation.

PIER
The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo.

POOLING
Sharing of cargo or the profit or loss from freight by member lines of a liner conference.

PORT DUES
Charges levied against a ship owner or ship operator by a port authority for the use of a port.

PIGGY PACKER
A mobile container-handling crane used to load/unload containers to/from railcars.

PORT OF REFUGE
Port, not on a ship’s itinerary, which she calls at due to some unforeseen hazard at sea and where she may undergo repairs, refuel or rescue cargo.

PILFERAGE
Petty theft.

PILOTAGE PORT OF REGISTRY
The act of assisting the master of a ship in navigation when entering or leaving a port or in confined water. Place where a ship is registered with the authorities, thereby establishing its nationality.

PILOTAGE DUES
Fee payable by the owner or operator of a ship for the services of a pilot; the fee is normally based on the ship’s registered tonnage.

PORTABLE UNLOADER
Type of ship unloader that is wheeled and capable of being moved around a port wherever needed. It is typically used in ports where there is no dedicated terminal with its own fixed equipment.

PLATFORM FLAT
A shipping container without sides, ends or a roof. Normally 20 x 40 feet long, it is used for awkwardly shaped cargo that cannot fit on or in any other type of container.

PRE-ENTRY
Presentation to the customs authorities of export or import declarations prior to the clearance of goods.

PLIMSOLL MARK/LOAD LINES
A series of horizontal lines painted on the outside of a ship marking the level that must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability.

PROJECT FINANCING
Financing wherein the lender looks to a project’s cash flows to repay the principal and interest on debt, and to a project’s assets for security; also known as "structured financing" because it requires structuring the debt and equity such that a project’s cash flows are adequate to service the debt.

PONTOON
Flat-bottomed vessel with a shallow draught.

Q

QUARTERMASTER/HELMSMAN
An able-bodied seamen entrusted with the steering of a vessel.

QUARTERS
Accommodations.

QUAY
A structure attached to land to which a vessel is moored.


R

REACH STACKER
Motorized and mobile crane equipped with a frontal lifting device allowing it to lift and to stack maritime containers.

REEFER
Refrigerated container.

REEFER
Refrigerator ship: A vessel designed to carry goods requiring refrigeration, such as meat and fruit. A reefer ship has insulated holds into which cold air is passed at the temperature appropriate to the goods being carried.

RELAY
To transfer containers from one ship to another.

RMG
Rail Mounted Gantry

RTG
Rubber Tired Gantry

RO/RO
A shortening of the term "Roll on/Roll off." A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps that allow wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes.

RO/RO SHIP
Freight ship or ferry with facilities for vehicles to drive on and off (roll-on roll-off); a system of loading and discharging a ship whereby the cargo is driven on and off on ramps. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy access. Fully loaded trucks or trailers carrying containers are accommodated on the deck.


S

SALVAGE
The property which has been recovered from a wrecked vessel, or the recovery of the vessel herself.

SEABEE
Sea-barge, a barge carrier design similar to "LASH" but which uses rollers to move the barges aboard the ship; the self-propelled loaded barges are themselves loaded on board as cargo and are considerably larger than those loaded on LASH ships.

SEA TRIALS
A series of trials conducted by the builders during which the owner's representatives on board act in a consulting and checking capacity to determine if the vessel has met the specifications.

SEAWORTHINESS
The sufficiency of a vessel in materials construction, equipment, crew and outfit for the trade in which it is employed. Any sort of disrepair to the vessel by which the cargo may suffer -- overloading, untrained officers, etc., may constitute a vessel unseaworthy.

SEAWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE
A certificate issued by a classification society surveyor to allow a vessel to proceed after she has met with a mishap that may have affected its seaworthiness. It is frequently issued to enable a vessel to proceed, after temporary repairs have been effected, to another port where permanent repairs are then carried out.

SELF-PROPELLED BARGE
A barge which has its own engine.

SELF-SUSTAINING SHIP
A containership which has her own crane for loading and discharging shipping containers enabling the ship to serve ports which do not have suitable lifting equipment.

SELF-TRIMMING SHIP
A ship whose holds are shaped in such a way that the cargo levels itself.

SELF-UNLOADER
A bulk carrier which is equipped with gear for unloading cargo.

STEVEDORE
Individual or firm that employs longshoremen to load and unload vessels.

STEVEDORING CHARGES
Fees for loading and stowing or unloading a ship.

STO-RO
A vessel with capacity for break-bulk cargo as well as vehicles or trailer borne cargo.

STS
Ship to shore crane

SHIP CHANDLER
An individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships.

STOWAGE FACTOR
The average cubic space occupied by one tonne weight of cargo as stowed aboard a ship.

SHORT TON
2,000 pounds.

SIP
Streamlined Inspection Program.

SISTER SHIPS
Ships built on the same design.

SIU
Seafarers International Union.

SLIP
A vessel's berth between two piers.

SLOP TANK
A tank in a tanker into which slops are pumped. These represent a residue of the ship's cargo of oil together with the water used to clean the cargo tanks. They are left to separate out in the slop tank.

SHIP’S TACKLE
All rigging, etc., used on a ship to load or unload cargo.

STRADDLE CARRIER
Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework.

SIDE LOADER
A lift truck fitted with lifting attachments operating to one side for handling containers.

STURDONS
Port workers engaged in the stowage of cargo in the holds of a ship.

SPOTTING
Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded.

SUPPLY CHAIN SPREADER
A piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings. A logistics management system that integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw materials to the manufacturer through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measurable components.

STACK CAR
An articulated multiple platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked.

STACKTRAIN
A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers

T

TARE WEIGHT
The weight of wrapping or packing; added to the net weight of cargo to determine its gross weight.

TAIL SHAFT
The extreme section at the aft end of a ship's propeller shaft.

TANK BARGE
A river barge designed for the carriage of liquid bulk cargoes.

TANK CLEANING
Removal of all traces of a cargo from the tanks of a tanker normally by means of high pressure water jets.

TANKER
A tanker is a bulk carrier designed to transport liquid cargo, most often petroleum products. Oil tankers vary in size from small coastal vessels of 1,500 tons deadweight, through medium-sized ship of 60,000 tons, to the giant VLCCs (very large crude carriers).

TENDER
The offer of goods for transportation.

TERRITORIAL WATERS
That portion of the sea up to a limited instance which is immediately adjacent to the shores of any country and over which the sovereignty and exclusive jurisdiction of that country extend.

TERMINAL
An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel, train, truck, or airplane, or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel, train, truck, or airplane.

T.E.U.
Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit (containers): A measurement of cargo-carrying capacity on a containership, referring to a common container size of 20 ft in length.

TRANSSHIPMENT
A distribution method whereby containers are moved between large mother ships and small feeder vessels, or between equally large ships plying north-south (Europe-Africa) and eastwest (Asia-Europe) routes.

TERMINAL CHARGE
A charge made for a service performed in a carrier’s terminal area.

TRANSSHIPMENT PORT
A port where cargo is transferred from one carrier to another or from one vessel of a carrier to another vessel of the same carrier without the cargo leaving the port.

THROUGHPUT CHARGE
The charge for moving a container through a container yard off or onto a ship.

TURNAROUND
The time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure from port; frequently used as a measure of port efficiency.

TOP OFF
To fill a ship that is already partly loaded with cargo. Typically occurs where there is a draught restriction at the first load port – the ship loads a quantity of cargo corresponding to the permissive draught, then fills up at the second port where there is no restriction.

TWENTY-FOOT EQUIVALENT UNITS (TEUS)
Container size standard of twenty feet. Two twenty-foot containers (TEUs) equal one FEU. Container vessel capacity and port throughput capacity are frequently referred to in FEUs or TEUs.

TOP STOW CARGO
Goods that are stowed on top of all others in a ship’s hold because of their relatively low density and the probability that they would be damaged if overstowed.

TOPLIFT
Attachment to a fork-lift truck that is designed to lift a shipping container.

TOW
When one or more vessels are being towed; when a tug is towing one or more floating objects; to pull an object in the water by means of a rope.

TOWAGE
Charges for the services of tugs assisting a ship or other vessels in ports.

TRAMP LINE
An ocean carrier company operating vessels on other than regular routes and schedules.

U

ULCC
Ultra Large Crude Carriers. Tankers larger than 300,000 dwt.

UNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNMANNED MACHINERY SPACES
A space where alarm bells are installed on the bridge of a ship to trace or rectify any machinery faults. The computerized devices will report any fault immediately when it appears and the engineers on board can attend to the necessary ramifications.

UNSEAWORTHINESS
The state or condition of a vessel when it is not in a proper state of maintenance, or if the loading equipment or crew, or in any other respect is not ready to encounter the ordinary perils of sea.

USCG
United States Coast Guard.

UNITIZATION
The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier handling.

UNLOADER
Port apparatus employed to unload ships carrying dry bulk cargo.

UNMOOR
To remove the ropes that attach a ship to the shore.

UNSTUFF
To unload a shipping container.

V

VARIABLE COST
Costs that vary directly with the level of activity within a short time. Examples include costs of moving cargo inland on trains or trucks, stevedoring in some ports, and short-term equipment leases.

VESSEL MANIFEST
The international carrier is obligated to make declarations of the ship's crew and contents at both the port of departure and arrival. The vessel manifest lists various details about each shipment by B/L number. Obviously, the B/L serves as the core source from which the manifest is created.

VISA - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement.

VLCC - Very Large Crude Carriers: Tankers between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.

W

WATCH
The day at sea is divided into six four hour periods. Three groups of watchstanders are on duty for four hours and then off for eight, then back to duty. Seamen often work overtime during their off time.

WAREHOUSE
A place for the reception, delivery, consolidation, distribution, and storage of goods and cargo.

WAYBILL
Document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper, which serves as a receipt for the goods and evidence of the contract of carriage.

WHARF
Structure built alongside the water or perpendicular to the shore where ships berth for loading or discharging goods.

WHARFAGE
Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.

WORLDSCALE
An index representing the cost of time chartering a tanker for a specific voyage at a given time. The index is given at Worldscale 100, which represents the price in dollars per ton for carrying the oil at that rate. The negotiated rate will be some percentage of the index value.

X

Y

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4 comments:

Anonymous said...

Dank U wel ik werk al 10 jaren op een haven maar heb mijn kennis over haventermen etc. opgedaan via uw site

Ga zo door s.v.p.

Aida said...

Thanks a lot for your glossary!

Cranoiste said...

Thanks..............


Gantry Crane

mischel johnson said...
This comment has been removed by the author.